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 Die Angelsachsen
Mercian Offline

Beiträge: 492

18.09.2009 16:09
Bilder von Archaeologische Funde und Nachbildungen antworten

Dieser Helm ist aus Eisen und Messing handgearbeitet nach einem Originalhelm aus der Zeit um 750 AD.

Er wurde bei den Ausgrabungen von Coppergate in England gefunden. Dort war die Hauptstadt der dänischen Wikinger, Jorvik (heute:York).

das z.Zt. der Wikinger-Herrschaft nach London die zweitgrößte und wichtigste Stadt Englands war.

Der Helm hat ein Nasal wie die meisten Wikinger-Helme, wird aber von Experten den in York lebenden Angelsachsen zugeschrieben, die den Normaltyp des Wikingerhelms mit Messing-Verzierungen veränderten.

The Ulltuna Helmet

The Ulltuna helmet is one of a series from Sweden dating from the 6th-8th centuries, including the Valsgarde and Vendel finds. Ulltuna has been dated at broadly 7th-8th century, but as it lacks much in the way of decoration, any dating is problematic.
Ulltuna's relatively simple construction suggested it as a candidate for reconstruction, as only hand tools were available. Its construction is based on a brow band, and a "crest" band, to which are riveted a number of narrow metal strips in a criss-cross arrangement. The crest band terminates in a snub nasal, and has a bronze crest riveted to it running the length of the helmet. As reconstructed, there are also five hinged metal plates protecting the cheeks and neck. A fur-lined leather cap has been made to act as padding.
The helmet cannot be claimed to be an exact replica of Ulltuna. The crest is made from solid brass rather than D-section tube, and is closer in design to the crest on the Valsgarde V helmet than the one on the original Ulltuna helmet. Both these changes were made to suit the materials and tools available. The metal plates at the side and back of the helmet were also reconstructed from the example of Valsgarde V, as only one survives on the Ulltuna helmet.
The helmet weighs some 4 lb in use, although 1 lb of this is attributable to the solid crest construction, and the criss-cross strips are probably thicker than their original counterparts. The neck guards need to be finely adjusted in order to ride clear of the wearer's shoulders, but they are effective in turning a sideways-directed swordblow downwards and hence rendering it ineffective. The nasal, although short, is still capable of catching a swordblow between itself and the forward neck guard.
The technique of the "basketwork" construction was surprisingly easy to master and the resulting bowl is rigid in use and would have been an effective protection against anything but arrows. The neck guards are probably no more or no less effective a protection than a ringmail tippet. Both these constructional techniques presumably are much easier to master than beaten bowl construction or manufacture of ring mail.
The most accessible reference in English to this helmet (and contemporary Swedish helmets) is probably in Dominic Tweddle's "The Anglian helmet from 16-22 Coppergate" (York Archaeological Trust, 1992, ISBN 1 872414 19 2), pp 1090-1125.


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Mercian Offline

Beiträge: 492

18.09.2009 16:12
#2 RE: Bilder von Archaeologische Funde und Nachbildungen antworten

Figure 1: Spearhead from Salibury, Wiltshire

A spear comprised an iron spearhead (fig 1) and a wooden shaft, traditionally of ash, although hazel, apple, oak and maple were also used. In addition, the butt end was sometimes protected with an iron ferrule.

Excellent forged spearheads can be bought from specialist armourers. If this is not possible an alternative is to make one from a garden 'edge trimmer' blade. The semi-circular blade must be cut to shape (see figs. 2), filed and rounded. The orange/red paint is most easily removed by burning it off, although it can be filed/sanded.

Spear shafts should be 1-1¼" diameter. Taper one end to take the spearhead using a sharp knife, spokeshave or surform. Fasten the head in place using small headless nails and the holes provided. Small nails will hold the head secure but will not pull out or catch on clothing if they do not protude above the surface of the metal head. Cut the spear to length i.e. between 6'6" and 7'6" overall and round off the edges of the butt end for safety. Shafts should be oiled using linseed oil and it is useful to identify your shaft by painting or burning a mark or ring on the butt end.


Anglo-Saxon shields were made from a circular wooden board, at the centre of which was fitted an iron 'boss' (fig. 1). The board behind the boss was cut away and a grip fitted across the opening, by which the shield was held. The shield was often covered with leather and decorated with fittings of iron or bronze.

The size of Anglo-Saxon shields recovered from burials is inferred from impressions in the soil, the position of remaining fittings and the dimensions of the grave. The evidence suggests that boards varied significantly in size, between 0.34 and 0.92m (1-3 feet) in diameter, with the majority in the range 0.46 to 0.66m (1½ to 2¼ feet).

Figure 1: Shield

The board can be made of 9mm thick plywood or to be more authentic make up a board of solid planks of alder, poplar, willow or lime. Join planks to form a board using wooden cross battens and attach the boards to the battens using wooden pegs and glue. Cut the board to shape using a jigsaw.

If you wish to paint your shield do so next. Use matt paint (e.g. emulsion) of an appropriate 'natural' colour and keep any pattern plain, e.g. stripes or sectors (no heraldry). Shields can also be covered with leather or linen which can itself be coloured.

The shield grip can be made of wood and/or iron. A simple iron grip (1" wide x 5-6" long) can be cut from 3-4mm sheet steel, filed smooth, and the middle bound with wool and/or leather.

You will require a shield boss which can be purchased from armourers. Place the boss on the centre of the board and draw round it (in pencil). Mark a second inner circle ¾" in from the first and cut a hole for your hand.

To rivet the boss and the grip to the board you will need some iron nails, steel washers which fit closely over the shaft of the nails and a drill bit of the same size. Drill five holes, equally spaced around the boss and through the wood. Push the nails through the holes so that their heads lie on the boss. Cut or clip the nails so that l-2mm protrudes. Place washers over the ends of the nails which do not pass through the grip, and rivet the ends of all the nails. The washers should prevent the rivet head pulling through the wood. You must ensure the head of the nail rests on a firm, hard surface during riveting. Next rivet the grip to the board. Drill a hole in either end of the grip. Place the grip across the hole in the board but off centre so that there is space for the knuckles when the shield is gripped.

If your shield is not covered with leather or linen it should be rimmed with leather or, preferably, rawhide. Rawhide can be obtained from pet shops as 'dog chews' which should be soaked in water until soft and cut into 1½" wide strips. Drill holes round the edge of the shield every 2-3" and sew the hide strips to the rim of the shield using linen thread or leather thong. When the rawhide dries it hardens again and prevents the edge of the shield from splintering.


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